Posted in Benefits of Exercise, Cardiovascular Fitness, Cholesterol, Diabetes and Metabolism, Healthy Habits, Youth Fitness

A little vigorous exercise may help boost kids’ cardiometabolic health

6406743 - young boy working out
Copyright: jhandersen / 123RF Stock Photo

ScienceDaily

Date: March 24, 2017
Source: Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center
Summary:
As little as 10 minutes a day of high-intensity physical activity could help some children reduce their risk of developing heart problems and metabolic diseases such as diabetes, according to an international study.
FULL STORY

As little as 10 minutes a day of high-intensity physical activity could help some children reduce their risk of developing heart problems and metabolic diseases such as diabetes, according to an international study led by a researcher at Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center.

The investigators found that replacing light-intensity physical activity with brief periods of vigorous exercise may provide significant cardiometabolic benefits in young people with relatively large waist measurements and elevated levels of insulin in their blood.

The study, published in the current issue of the journal Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, analyzed data from 11,588 young people ages 4 to 18 who were included in 11 International Children’s Accelerometry Database studies in the United States, Brazil and European countries. The researchers focused on those records that included the child’s age, gender, level of physical activity and at least one biomarker — a measurable indicator of a medical state or condition — of a cardiometabolic risk. These included weight circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and bloodstream levels of HDL (“good”) cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and insulin.

In evaluating the relationships between the biomarkers and vigorous physical activity while controlling for various factors (including age, gender, duration and level of exercise and sedentary time) the researchers found only 32 significant associations out of a possible 360. All 32 were related to reduced waist circumference and insulin levels. The relationships between high-intensity exercise and the other biomarkers were inconsistent.

“The results suggest that substituting modest amounts of vigorous physical activity for longer-duration light exercise may have cardiometabolic benefits above and beyond those conveyed by moderate activity and the avoidance of sedentary behavior,” said the study’s lead author, Justin B. Moore, Ph.D., associate professor of family and community medicine at Wake Forest School of Medicine, part of Wake Forest Baptist. “But as vigorous activity was independently associated with only two of the markers examined, it may be that its truly meaningful benefits may be limited, relative to less-intense exercise.”

Moore suggests that further studies incorporating additional variables — such as dietary and genetic data — are needed to better establish the relationships between various levels of exercise and cardiometabolic biomarkers in young people. “If such studies provide robust results,” he said, “a relatively brief but intense dose of physical activity — perhaps as little as 10 minutes day, which is certainly feasible for most youth — could turn out to be part of a ‘prescription’ for children to achieve or maintain cardiac and metabolic health.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Justin B. Moore, Michael W. Beets, Keith Brazendale, Steven N. Blair, Russell R. Pate, Lars B. Andersen, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Anders Grøntved, Pedro C. Hallal, Katarzyna Kordas, Susi Kriemler, John J. Reilly, Luis B. Sardinha. Associations of Vigorous-intensity Physical Activity with Biomarkers in Youth. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 2017; 1 DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001249
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Posted in Benefits of Exercise, Girl Power, Healthy Habits, Mind/Body, Motor skills, Youth Fitness

Girls with poorer motor skills more likely than boys to be obese — ScienceDaily

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Date:December 19, 2016

Source:Coventry University

Girls with poorer motor skills more likely than boys to be obese Date: December 19, 2016 Source: Coventry University Summary: Young girls who exhibit a poor mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) are more likely to be obese than boys who have similarly low skills, according to research.

Source: Girls with poorer motor skills more likely than boys to be obese — ScienceDaily

FULL STORY

Young girls who exhibit a poor mastery of fundamental movement skills (FMS) are more likely to be obese than boys who have similarly low skills, according to research led by Coventry University.

The study — which won an award at the recent British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences conference — assessed among other things the running, catching, and balance skills of 250 girls and boys between 6-11 years, categorising their FMS as either low, medium or high.

Researchers at Coventry University, working in collaboration with Middlesex University and the University of South Carolina, then cross-referenced the kids’ motor skills with their body fatness to investigate the relationship between the two. The children’s habitual physical activity was also taken into account.

The researchers found that:

  • body fatness was significantly higher among girls in the low FMS category compared with boys in the same category;
  • body fatness was higher for girls in the low FMS category compared with girls with medium or high fundamental movement skills;
  • there was no significant difference in body fatness across the low, medium and high FMS categories for boys.

Lead researcher Professor Mike Duncan, an exercise physiologist in Coventry University’s Centre for Applied Biological and Exercise Sciences, said “We know from previous studies that primary school children with a higher body mass index are likely to have poorer fundamental movement skills, but our research is aiming to understand this relationship in more detail — particularly how gender may play a role.

“What we’ve found is significant because it signals a need to review the strategies we have to enhance motor proficiency in girls, and means we should be engaging health practitioners and PE teachers to help explore and understand how additional opportunities or different techniques may be required compared with boys.

“The next big question — which we’re continuing to research — is whether developmental delays in acquiring these motor skills, whether in girls or boys, may actually be the cause of children gaining unhealthy weight status.”


Story Source:

Materials provided by Coventry University. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Posted in Healthy Habits

Getting inside teens’ heads: Study upsets beliefs about feelings and exercise probability


Date:  February 15, 2017
Source:  University of Kansas, Life Span Institute
Summary:
A pilot study tracking adolescents’ internal psychological states and physical activity in near real-time challenges prevailing assumptions about how to increase physical activity.
FULL STORY

A pilot study tracking adolescents’ internal psychological states around engaging in physical activity suggests that prevailing assumptions about how to increase physical activity might need a reboot.

Twenty-six adolescents reported their mood and energy four times a day for 20 days with an Android smartphone app developed by a University of Kansas research team led by Christopher Cushing, assistant professor of clinical child psychology, and KU Life Span Institute assistant scientist. The team then combined those reports with physical activity measurements collected from a research-grade activity tracker that they wore 24 hours a day.

The research team prompted participants to rate positive affect (feeling happy), negative affect (feeling sad) as well as whether and to what degree they felt energetic or fatigued through a short survey delivered on the smartphone app.

“You might assume that if you had higher positive affect and felt energetic, you would be more likely to exercise, but we found that this is not true for everyone,” said Cushing. “For some of our participants, feeling happy with lots of energy predicted exercise, while for others the relationship was in the opposite direction.”

Cushing said that this is a big advancement in the field of health behavior. “If you think about the kind of advice a clinician would want to give to a patient, this study shows that adolescents are too different from each other to rely on a one-size-fits-all recommendation that is typical in practice. We need to know something about the person before giving a standard set of advice.”

A long-term goal of this line of research is to design an intervention system that would personalize prompts based on each individual’s optimum times to exercise as gleaned from data collected from reported internal states.

Cushing said that his research group is aligned with the National Institutes of Health precision medicine initiative.

Cushing said that they were also able to answer the question, would adolescents participate in in this kind of study that required a lot of time and energy thought the day. The study got a very high response rate and nearly all of the participants said they would do it again if their physician asked them to participate in a similar study to better understand their health.

“Teens are willing to do it if they think they’ll learn something about the relationship between how they feel and important health behaviors they are interested in tracking or improving.”

Cushing said his research team wants to focus on increasing the physical activity of adolescents because high school is a time when most adolescents drop from a pattern of moderate activity to the kind of minimal activity that predisposes them for diseases as adults.

“We want to help them find opportunities for leisure time physical activities outside of the structure of school, and we think it makes sense to do that in a way that is personalized for each adolescent.”

“By the time a person reaches adulthood, patterns of behavior are relatively well-established. We think it is a harder proposition to get an adult off of the couch after they have slipped into a pattern of inactivity than to help an adolescent who is moderately active maintain some of that activity as they age into adulthood,” said Cushing.

When distributed over a large population, Cushing said, this approach could have a significant impact on the amount of the GNP the country spends on preventable illnesses linked to physical inactivity.

The study was funded by a Targeted Research Grant awarded by the Society of Pediatric Psychology and published in the Journal of Pediatric Psychology.


Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Kansas, Life Span Institute. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Christopher C. Cushing, Tarrah B. Mitchell, Carolina M. Bejarano, Ryan W. Walters, Christopher J. Crick, Amy E. Noser. Bidirectional Associations Between Psychological States and Physical Activity in Adolescents: A mHealth Pilot Study. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 2017; jsw099 DOI: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsw099

Cite This Page:

University of Kansas, Life Span Institute. “Getting inside teens’ heads: Study upsets beliefs about feelings and exercise probability.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 February 2017. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2017/02/170215142024.htm>.